See also Brown rice syrup and syrup solids
Rice history. Rice in California. 
Varieties (species) used in brewing
In North America, there is one commercial operation producing malted rice: Eckert Malting in Brewing in Chico, California. Jim Eckert is a former University of California research associate who worked at the California Rice Experiment Station 
Heat and water in tandem help break down the bonds of starch molecules, essentially unraveling them so that they are more accessible to enzymes for conversion to sugar. The temperature range for gelatinization can vary by millet variety, growing region and conditions, and malting process. The temperature range cited by a number of gluten-free brewing resources is significantly higher than that of barley and wheat, leading to additional impacts for enzyme denaturing and mash schedule recommendations. Endogenous amylase enzymes denature above x• C and therefore many gluten-free brewers combine a high temperature gelatinization mash step followed by the addition of exogenous enzymes (including some that are active at these higher temperatures).
|Author||Range (C)||Range (F)|
|Briggs ||61 - 82||142 - 180|
|Novozymes ||68 - 84||154 - 183|
Proteins and diastatic power
Diastatic power is a measure of the relative strength of starch reducing enzymes in a malted grain (measured in degrees lintner).
Rice malt has a lower diastatic power than malted barley. Eckert pale malt is listed as having a maximum range of 20-35 lintner, and an average range of 20-25 lintner by Gluten Free Home Brewing.. By way of comparison, American 2-row and 6-row barley pale malt can be 110 to 160 degrees lintner.
Flavor characteristics and off-flavors
Beers with a high proportion (70%+) of rice may exhibit a wintergreen or celery seed flavor. Jason Yerger believes a remedy for this potential off-flavor is full starch conversion during mash. He recommends pre-cooking rice to gelatinize before using pullulanase (e.g. Ondea Pro), followed by alpha-amylase and potentially glucoamylase.
Zero Tolerance Threads
Academic paper - Development of an All Rice Beer (Mayer et al). https://www.facebook.com/groups/ZeroToleranceGF/permalink/545295209358043/ Malting rice. https://www.facebook.com/groups/ZeroToleranceGF/permalink/545294832691414/
- Rice Farming, https://www.ricefarming.com/departments/cover-story/honing-a-craft/
- Briggs et al, Brewing Science and Practice, 2004, chapter 2 "Malts, adjuncts and supplementary enzymes"
- Novozymes Brewing Handbook, 2013, https://www.occrp.org/images/documents/bioteching-poor-beer-for-poor-countries-P19.pdf, page 30